The Campanile (1997)
First photogrammetry models
1) Paul Debevec demonstrated new image-based modeling and rendering techniques, in particular those from the "Facade" photogrammetric modeling system presented in Debevec's 1996 UC Berkeley Ph.D. thesis. The tower and campus were modeled from a set of twenty still photographs and virtually rendered using projective view-dependent texture mapping. At its premiere at the SIGGRAPH 97 Electronic Theater in Los Angeles, "The Campanile Movie" attracted the attention of visual effects supervisor John Gaeta who would leverage its technqiues in creating virtual backgrounds for the "bullet-time" shots in the 1999 movie The Matrix.
2) Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points. Photogrammetry is as old as modern photography, dating to the mid-19th century and in the simplest example, the distance between two points that lie on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane, can be determined by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale(s) of the image is known. Photogrammetric analysis may be applied to one photograph, or may use high-speed photography and remote sensing to detect, measure and record complex 2-D and 3-D motion fields by feeding measurements and imagery analysis into computational models in an attempt to successively estimate, with increasing accuracy, the actual, 3-D relative motions. It is also used to combine live action with computer-generated imagery in movies post-production. Photogrammetry was used extensively to create photorealistic environmental assets for video games including Star Wars Battlefront.